What is the effect of dietary fiber on diabetes?

Food fiber is a component of cell wall and interstitium of edible plants, which belongs to polysaccharides that do not produce heat energy, and will not be digested and absorbed by human body, and will not provide heat energy. According to its physical and chemical properties, food fiber can be divided into soluble and insoluble categories: soluble food fiber mainly includes pectin, algin, bean gum and gum sticky, etc. For example, the fibers contained in fruits, vegetables, kelp, laver and beans are all soluble food fibers. Pectin exists in fruits; Algin exists in kelp, laver, etc., and bean gum exists in some beans. Insoluble dietary fibers include cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which come from the epidermis of cereals and legumes seeds and the stems and leaves of plants, such as rice bran, bran, beet scraps and corn husk. Corn husk contains the most cellulose, followed by legumes with 80% and wheat bran with 44%. In addition, vegetables such as green vegetables, celery, cauliflower, carrots and pumpkins all contain more cellulose.

Medical studies have confirmed that dietary fiber deficiency is one of the important inducing factors of many diseases including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, colon cancer, etc. Studies have found that dietary fiber has the effect of lowering blood sugar, especially postprandial blood sugar, which can reduce insulin level in blood to varying degrees and improve glucose tolerance. This may be because dietary fiber can delay the emptying of food in gastrointestinal tract and pectin can absorb water, forming a gel filtration system in intestinal tract, which affects the absorption of carbohydrates from the surface, or hinders the action of digestive enzymes, or changes the digestion and absorption of nutrients through other ways. Pectin aqueous solution has a certain viscosity, and experiments have proved that its viscosity is proportional to the degree of blood sugar reduction; Pectin can also stimulate the secretion of gastrointestinal hormone "gastric inhibitory polypeptide", which reduces postprandial blood sugar and serum insulin levels; These beneficial effects undoubtedly have a very positive impact on the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In addition, food fiber can also combine with bile acids and bile salts in the body, thus blocking or partially blocking the intestinal and hepatic circulation of cholesterol and bile, and increasing the excretion of bile salts in stool. Because bile acids are precursor substances for cholesterol synthesis, it can reduce serum cholesterol concentration, thus improving lipid metabolism, and has preventive and therapeutic effects on the occurrence and development of hyperlipidemia, cholesterolemia, gallstones and cardiovascular complications. Food fiber can delay gastric emptying time, increase satiety, reduce food intake and calories, and is beneficial to weight loss and obesity control.

Food fiber can also promote intestinal peristalsis, Because of its osmotic effect, it has the effects of softening stool and promoting defecation. Therefore, it can relieve constipation, improve hemorrhoids and reduce the incidence of colon cancer. These effects are also beneficial to diabetic patients to relieve hunger and prevent the occurrence and development of diabetic complications. However, long-term consumption of high-fiber diet can lead to the loss of some inorganic salts, vitamins, trace elements and amino acids, which affects health, especially the growth and development of children. Therefore, blood sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron and magnesium should be measured regularly. People with diarrhea and autonomic nervous disorders should choose such foods under the guidance of doctors. Dietary fiber is well-deserved as a dietary element for treating diabetes, and its clinical application value has been paid more and more attention. Therefore, the daily intake of dietary fiber in diabetic patients should be increased. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the daily intake of dietary fiber be 27 Fruits and other foods, such as celery, spinach, bean sprouts, fresh pods, seaweed, strawberries, pineapples, walnuts, peanuts, and edible wheat bran and tender corn.



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