The diet of diabetic patients should be carefully designed according to their illness, which is characterized by rational distribution of carbohydrate, fat and protein intake on the basis of controlling heat intake, so as to correct clinical symptoms such as blood sugar, urine sugar and dyslipidemia caused by glucose metabolism disorder.
Reasonable control of total heat energy
It is advisable to maintain the standard weight of patients' total heat energy intake. The need for heat energy should depend on the specific conditions of patients. Doctors should formulate recipes and determine the total calories of a day according to the patient's age, sex, height, weight, labor intensity, amount of exercise, complications, etc., so as to maintain the standard weight of patients and correct metabolic disorders. Obese patients have increased fat cells and decreased insulin sensitivity, which is not conducive to treatment, so they should first lose weight and reduce heat energy intake. Emaciated people have reduced resistance to diseases and affect their health, so they should increase their heat energy intake and increase their weight to make them close to normal levels. Pregnant women, lactating women and children should increase their heat energy intake to maintain special physiological needs or normal growth and development.
Carbohydrates should not be controlled too strictly
Controlling carbohydrate intake is considered to be the key to dietary recuperation for diabetics. Before the advent of synthetic insulin, the carbohydrate content in the diet of diabetics was very low, accounting for only about 10% of total heat energy. In the past 60 years, the carbohydrate intake in the diet of diabetics has increased year by year, reaching 50% ~ 65% at present. In principle, the carbohydrate intake should be limited according to the specific conditions of patients, but it should not be too low. Because there are too few carbohydrates in the diet, patients are not tolerant. At the same time, the body uses fat metabolism to supply heat energy due to lack of sugar, which is more prone to ketoacidosis.
Reduce fat intake
Fat intake should be determined according to the specific situation of patients. Generally, the daily intake of fat should account for 20% ~ 30% of total heat energy, or even lower. High-fat diet can hinder the utilization of sugar, and its metabolism will produce ketone bodies, which will easily induce and aggravate ketoacidosis. Obese patients should strictly limit the intake of fat, which should not exceed 40 grams per day. Because of the limited intake of carbohydrates and insufficient heat energy sources, emaciated patients can increase their fat intake accordingly.
The supply of protein should be sufficient
Protein is an essential nutrient for human body. The supply of protein in the diet of diabetic patients should be sufficient, and the intake should generally be equivalent to or slightly higher than that of normal people. Foods rich in protein include fish, meat and its products, eggs, milk, soybeans and their products, etc. The daily protein requirement per kilogram of body weight is: 10 grams for adults, 20 grams for children, 15 ~ 20 grams for pregnant women and lactating women. When there are complications, the intake of protein should be determined according to the guidance of doctors.
Appropriate supplementation of vitamins, minerals and trace elements
Minerals and vitamins are very important to the human body and must be supplemented. In case of infection and other diseases, more supplements should be made. In particular, attention should be paid to the supply of vitamin B1. Generally, cereals contain higher vitamin B1. Diabetic patients limit the intake of staple food, which often leads to insufficient vitamin B and sources, and are prone to nervous system diseases caused by vitamin B1 deficiency. In addition, vitamin B12 can change and relieve nervous system symptoms, and vitamin C can prevent microangiopathy, so it should be properly supplemented.
In addition, we should pay attention to the fact that sodium salt in diet should not be too much. High sodium can easily induce hypertension and arteriosclerosis. When the disease is not well controlled, it is easy to have various infections and ketoacidosis, so we should pay attention to properly supplementing inorganic salts. Supplementing sodium, potassium and magnesium when ketoacidosis occurs can correct electrolyte disturbance.